India has some of the best constructions in the world. However, Vivekananda Flyover crash in Kolkata has uplifted some challenges to the civil engineers. Despite the difficulties, civil engineers are willing to learn and dedicate their life building awesome architecture.
Some of the great rail and road bridge of India includes Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Bandra Worli Sea Link, Vembanad Rail Bridge and Ganga Rail Road Bridge. Other five longest bridges above water in India are Kolia Bhomora Setu, Korthi-Kolhar Bridge, Old Godavari Bridge, Godavari Arch Bridge and Pamban Bridge.
10 Longest Bridges In India
The advancement of technology has touched every aspect of our lives, including the construction sector. There have been many road bridges which have been constructed over water to connect two land masses, for the purpose of making the distance between them shortest. It is not easy to build such long bridges over water, as there is no solid foundation for them. Despite this difficulty, the country has been successful in building numerous long bridges over water in recent years. These bridges are the symbols of the progress in science and technology and have done our country proud.
10. Nehru Setu (3,059 meters)
Nehru Setu (Hindi: नेहरू सेतु) (earlier referred to as the Upper Son Bridge), across the Son River, between Dehri-on-Son and Son Nagar, in Bihar, is the second longest railway bridge in India, after Vembanad Rail Bridge in Kerala however when it was constructed it was the longest bridge in India. However, the latter is meant only for goods traffic. Jawahar Setu, the road bridge carrying NH 2 and running parallel to the Nehru Setu, was constructed in 1963–65.
The Government of Bihar sanctioned in 2008, a bridge across the Son River connecting Arwal and Sahar in Bojpur district.The Koilwar bridge preceded the Nehru Setu and was opened in 1862.A four-lane road bridge, carrying NH 30, parallel to the existing rail and road Koilwar Bridge, has been planned. An anicut was constructed across the Son, a little upstream of the present Nehru Setu and Jawahar Setu, in 1873–74. The Indrapuri Barrage was constructed, 8 km upstream, and commissioned in 1968.
9. Jawahar Setu (3,061 meters)
Jawahar Setu (Hindi: जवाहर सेतु) is across the Son River, between Dehri-on-Son and Son Nagar, in the Indian state of Bihar. It is named after the first prime minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. The 3,061 metres (10,043 ft) road bridge carries the Grand Trunk Road/ NH 2. It was built by Gammon India Ltd in 1963-65. Nehru Setu, the rail bridge that runs parallel to the road bridge was built in 1900.
There are so many more big and outstanding road and rail bridges such as Vikramshila Setu, Vashi Bridge, Mahanadi Bridge, the longest rail bridge in India “Vembanad Rail Bridge” and under construction tallest bridge in the world Chenab Bridge in Kashmir.
8. Munger Ganga Bridge (3,692 meters)
Munger Ganga Bridge (Hindi: मुंगेर गंगा सेतु), is a rail-cum-road bridge across the Ganges, at Munger in the Indian state of Bihar. The bridge connects Munger-Jamalpur twin cities to various districts of North Bihar. Munger Ganga Bridge is the third rail-cum-road bridge over Ganga in Bihar.
The 3.692 km long bridge costing Rs. 9,300 million is located 55 km downstream of the Rajendra Setu near Mokama and 68 km upstream of the Vikramshila Setu at Bhagalpur. The bridge will form a link between NH 80 on the southern side of the Ganges and NH 31 on the northern side of the Ganges. It connects Jamalpur Junction and Ratanpur stations on the Sahibganj Loop line of Eastern Railway through a new junction namely Sabdalpur Junction on north end of bridge to Sahebpur Kamal and Umeshnagar near Khagaria Junction on the Barauni-Katihar section of East Central Railway. The Bridge connects districts of Begusarai and Khagaria to the Divisional headquarters Munger city.
Construction work on the bridge was inaugurated by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Prime Minister, through video conference system, in 2002. Bridge was formally opened for freight trains on 12 March 2016 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It was finally opened for passenger trains on 11 April 2016 by Minister of state for Railways, Manoj Sinha by flagging off Begusarai-Jamalpur DEMU train. Road on bridge is complete too but approach roads are not ready due to lack of land acquisition.
7. Penumudi Puligadda Bridge (4,000 meters)
Penumudi–Puligadda Bridge is located on the Krishna river on National Highway 214. It spans the river from Penumudi in Guntur district to Puligadda in Krishna district, and hence the name. The bridge became operational on 27 May 2006, and was inaugurated by the then Chief Minister YS Rajasekhara Reddy. It reduces the travel between the districts by approximately 100 km (62 mi). The total cost of construction was estimated as ₹71 crore (US$11 million) on a build, operate and transfer (BOT) basis completed by Navayuga Engineering Company Limited.
6. Godavari Bridge (4,100 meters)
The Godavari Bridge or Kovvur–Rajahmundry Bridge is truss bridge spanning Godavari river in Rajahmundry, India. It is Asia’s third longest road-cum-rail bridge crossing a water body, after the Digha–Sonpur rail–road bridge in Patna, Bihar, India and Sky Gate Bridge R in Kansai International Airport, Osaka. It is second of the three bridges that span the Godavari River at Rajahmundry. The Havelock Bridge being the earliest, was built in 1897, and having served its full utility, was decommissioned in 1997. The latest bridge is the Godavari Arch Bridge, a bowstring-girder bridge, built in 1997 and presently in service.
The bridge is 4.1 kilometers (2.8 km Rail part & 4.1 km Road part) long consisting of 27 spans of 91.5 m and 7 spans of 45.72 m of which 6 spans of 45.72m are in 6 deg. curve at long Rajahmundry end to make up for the built up area. The bridge has a road deck over the single track rail deck, similar to the Grafton Bridge in New South Wales, Australia. This bridge, in addition to Godavari Arch Bridge, has been widely used to represent Rajahmundry in arts, media, and culture. It is one of the recognised symbols of Rajahmundry.
5. Digha-Sonpur Bridge (4,566 meters)
The Digha–Sonpur rail–road bridge (Hindi: दीघा-सोनपुर रेल-सह-सड़क सेतु) or Ganga rail–road bridge (Hindi: गंगा रेल-सड़क सेतु) is a bridge across river Ganga, connecting Digha Ghat in Patna and Pahleja Ghat in Sonpur, Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar. The rail-cum-road bridge provides easy roadway and railway link between northern and southern parts of Bihar. It is a steel girder bridge. Regular scheduled passenger rail service was inaugurated on this route on 3 February 2016. This is second railway bridge in Bihar after Rajendra Setu that connects North Bihar to South Bihar. Indian railways has constructed two railway stations on either sides of the bridge – Patliputra Junction railway station (PPTA) and Bharpura PahlejaGhat railway station (PHLG).
On 22 December 1996, Former Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda laid the foundation stone for the construction of the railway bridge over Ganga at Sonepur. Ram Vilas Paswan was the railway minister at that time, but the physical work on the bridge began in 2003 when Nitish Kumar was the railway minister.The Digha–Sonpur Ganga bridge was initially sanctioned as a rail bridge; the project was converted to a rail-cum-road bridge in 2006. Total cost of the project was put at ₹13,890 million, out of which ₹8,350 million was for the rail part, and ₹5,540 million was for the road part. It was expected to be completed in five years. The construction work on the bridge was completed in August 2015, and a trial run of a diesel locomotive was undertaken on the bridge in the same month.
Ganga rail–road bridge project was executed by Ircon International and the bridge was completed at ₹1,570 crore (US$230 million). The electrification work on the Patna-Sonepur-Hajipur Section was completed by July 2016. The doubling of railway tracks on the bridge will be done at an estimated cost of Rs 156.09 crore and will be completed by October 2018. This bridge of 4,556 metres (14,948 ft) length is amongst the longest bridges in India. The total length of construction, including approaches, would be 20 km. It is a K-truss bridge. There will be two rail tracks (up and down tracks) and a four-lane road (two carriage ways in each direction).
4. Vembanad Rail Bridge (4,620 meters)
Vembanad Rail Bridge in the state of Kerala is a rail connecting Edappally and Vallarpadam in Kochi. It is the longest railway bridge in India. The line is dedicated solely for freight.The construction of the bridge started on June 2007 and was completed on 31 March 2010. The rail bridge is being built by Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd.,Chennai PIU, A Government of India Enterprise (RVNL).
A total of 11700 tonnes of reinforced steel, 58000 tonnes of cement, 99000 cubic metre of metal aggregates, 73500 cubic metre of sand, 127000 cubic metre of concrete work and 154308 cubic metre of earth work went into this project. The bridge is constructed over pile foundations at 133 locations. The bridge comprises 231 girders, each weighing 220 tonnes. The bridge has 132 spans consisting of 33 spans of 20 m and 99 spans of 40 m which are made of PSC girders and cater to electric traction.
3. Vikramshila Setu (4,700 meters)
Vikramshila Setu is a bridge across the Ganges, near Bhagalpur in the Indian state of Bihar named after the ancient Mahavihara of Vikramashila which was established by King Dharmapala (783 to 820 A.D.).
Vikramshila Setu is 3rd longest bridge over water in India. The 4.7 km long two lane bridge serves as a link between NH 80 and NH 31 running on the opposite sides of the Ganges. It runs from Barari Ghat on the Bhagalpur side on the south bank of the Ganges to Naugachia on the north bank. It also connects Bhagalpur to Purnia and Kathiar. This has reduced considerably the road travel distance between Bhagalpur and places across the Ganges. However, there is intense traffic congestion on the bridge due to increased traffic and there is now a demand to construct another bridge parallel to it.
2. Bandra Worli Sea Link (5,600 meters)
The Bandra–Worli Sea Link, officially called Rajiv Gandhi Sea Link, is a cable-stayed bridge with pre-stressed concrete-steel viaducts on either side that links Bandra in the Western Suburbs of Mumbai with Worli in South Mumbai. The bridge is a part of the proposed Western Freeway that will link the Western Suburbs to Nariman Point in Mumbai’s main business district.
The ₹16 billion (US$240 million) bridge was commissioned by the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC), and built by the Hindustan Construction Company. The first four of the eight lanes of the bridge were opened to the public on 30 June 2009. All eight lanes were opened on 24 March 2010. The sea-link reduces travel time between Bandra and Worli during peak hours from 60–90 minutes to 20–30 minutes. As of October 2009, BWSL had an average daily traffic of around 37,500 vehicles.
1. Mahatma Gandhi Setu (5,750 meters)
Mahatma Gandhi Setu (also called Gandhi Setu or Ganga Setu) is a bridge over the river Ganges connecting Patna in the south to Hajipur in the north of Bihar. Its length is 5,750 meters (18,860 ft) and it is the longest river bridge in India. It was inaugurated in May 1982 by the then Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, inauguration took place at the north end of the bridge located in Hajipur viewed by thousands of people.
The bridge consists 45 intermediate spans of 121.065 meters (397.19 ft) each and a span of 65.530 meters (214.99 ft) at each end. The deck provides for 7.5 metres (25 ft) wide two lane roadway for IRC class 70 R loading with footpaths on either side.
The cantilever segmental construction method was adopted to construct this mega bridge. Each span has two cantilever beams on both sides which are free to move at the ends. It has two lanes one upstream and the other downstream each with a width of around 6m. Both the lanes are also free from each other and are not connected anywhere.
It was constructed by using 3-meter pre-casted parts being joined at both ends to complete the span. The Spans are connected by using a Protrusion which is free to move longitudinally also along the river flow. In upwards and the downwards direction it is such that it allows vibration to transfer smoothly to the next span while vehicular movement without much discreteness.